In the realm of business and personal transactions, disputes over unpaid debts or unfulfilled contractual obligations are commonplace. A Letter of Demand (LOD) is a powerful tool utilized in Malaysia to address such issues. This formal document, typically issued by a lawyer on behalf of a client, serves as a precursor to legal action, demanding the recipient fulfill their obligations within a specified timeframe. The effectiveness and utility of an LOD in the Malaysian context are significant, offering both strategic and practical benefits.

Understanding the Letter of Demand

A Letter of Demand is essentially a formal notice sent to a debtor or a party that has breached a contract, notifying them of their failure to meet certain obligations and demanding rectification. This letter outlines the details of the debt or breach, the amount owed or the specific breach in question, and a clear ultimatum—usually a fixed period within which to comply, typically 14 days.

Usefulness of a Letter of Demand in Malaysia

  1. Pre-Litigation Strategy:
    • Cost-Effective: Initiating legal proceedings can be costly and time-consuming. An LOD serves as a cost-effective first step, potentially resolving the dispute without the need for litigation.
    • Prompt Response: The formal and urgent nature of an LOD often prompts a quicker response from the debtor, who may wish to avoid legal consequences.
  2. Legal Requirement:
    • In certain cases, issuing an LOD is a procedural requirement before filing a lawsuit. For instance, under Malaysian law, a statutory demand is a prerequisite in insolvency proceedings against individuals or companies.
  3. Documentation and Evidence:
    • An LOD provides clear documentation of the creditor’s attempt to settle the matter amicably. This can be critical evidence in court, demonstrating that the creditor acted reasonably and sought resolution before resorting to litigation.
  4. Professional Leverage:
    • When issued by a legal firm, an LOD carries significant weight. The involvement of a legal professional indicates seriousness and readiness to escalate the matter to court, which can be a compelling motivator for the debtor to comply.
  5. Negotiation Tool:
    • Sometimes, the threat of legal action can bring both parties to the negotiating table. An LOD can serve as a catalyst for settlement discussions, leading to mutually agreeable solutions without the need for judicial intervention.

Effects of a Letter of Demand

  1. Immediate Compliance:
    • The most desired effect of an LOD is immediate compliance. Debtors often settle their debts promptly to avoid further legal complications and additional costs associated with court proceedings.
  2. Preservation of Relationships:
    • In business contexts, an LOD can help maintain professional relationships by offering a formal yet non-confrontational approach to dispute resolution. This approach can preserve the possibility of future dealings once the current issue is resolved.
  3. Clarification of Intent:
    • By clearly stating the creditor’s demands and the consequences of non-compliance, an LOD eliminates ambiguity. This clarity can help the debtor understand the seriousness of the situation and the legal ramifications of ignoring the demand.
  4. Foundation for Legal Action:
    • If the debtor fails to respond appropriately, the LOD lays the groundwork for legal proceedings. It provides a clear record that the creditor attempted to resolve the matter outside of court, which can be beneficial in subsequent litigation.
  5. Psychological Impact:
    • The receipt of an LOD can have a significant psychological impact on the debtor, creating a sense of urgency and seriousness that mere verbal or informal written reminders might lack.

Legal Implications of Ignoring a Letter of Demand under the Malaysian Evidence Act 1950

Ignoring a Letter of Demand in Malaysia does not automatically equate to an admission of liability under Section 17 of the Evidence Act 1950. However, it does have significant implications under Section 8 regarding conduct. This conduct is a relevant fact for the court to take into account, giving the relevant probative force to the version of the plaintiff’s and/or defendant’s case.


In the Malaysian context, a Letter of Demand is an invaluable tool for creditors seeking to resolve disputes over unpaid debts or breached contracts. Its strategic use can often lead to swift compliance, preserve business relationships, and provide a clear path to legal recourse if necessary. By leveraging the formal nature and legal backing of an LOD, creditors can effectively protect their interests and encourage prompt resolution of disputes.

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